Slide Library

1.1 Obesity as a Chronic Disease

Key Points
  • Genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors all contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity
  • The pathophysiology of obesity involves neuroendocrine factors that regulate both appetite and ener

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1.2 Obesity Pathophysiology

Key Points
  • Obesity has a genetic basis as well as environmental and behavioral origins
  • Age contributes to a shift in balance between fat and muscle mass
  • Various negative feedback loops contribu

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1.3 Anthropometric Evaluation

Key Points
  • Evaluation of patients for obesity should include a complete history and physical examination
  • Body mass index (BMI) cutpoints vary with race and ethnicity
  • Waist circumference

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1.4 Clinical Evaluation

Key Points
  • Clinical evaluation of obese patients should include a complete history and physical examination
  • Comorbidities and obesity complications should also be assessed
  • Treatment plans shoul

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2.1 Epidemiology

Key Points
  • Obesity is increasing globally
    • Rates of obesity have risen dramatically in the U.S.

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2.2 Metabolic Complications

Key Points
  • Obesity is associated with higher risks of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D)
  • Weight loss with lifestyle therapy, pharmacotherapy, or bariatric surgery
    • Reduces the risk of progr

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2.3 Cardiovascular Complications

Key Points
  • Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular risk
  • Weight loss by means of lifestyle therapy, pharmacotherapy, or bariatric surgery positively affects cardiovascular risk markers

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2.4 Organ-Specific, Hormonal, and Biomechanical Complications

Key Points
  • Numerous organ-specific and biomechanical complications accompany obesity
  • Weight loss ameliorates all of these conditions

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2.5 Psychological Complications (Coming Soon)

Key Points
  • Depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and other psychological conditions frequently are associated with obesity
  • Weight loss may positively affect the psychological complications of obesity.

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3.1 Lifestyle Intervention

Key Points
  • Lifestyle interventions effectively prevent physical and metabolic complications of obesity
    • Lifestyle alone is less effective in populations with more severe obesity

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3.2 When to Initiate Pharmacotherapy

Key Points
  • Weight-loss medications should be considered when obesity-related complications can be ameliorated by weight loss.
  • Pharmacotherapy should always be combined with lifestyle therapy, never used

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3.3 Weight Loss Medications

Key Points
  • Older obesity pharmacotherapies are limited by tolerability and dependence issues and are approved only for short-term use (≤12 weeks).
  • Newer weight loss agents are typically better tolerated,

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3.4 Bariatric Surgery

Key Points
  • Four weight-loss surgical options are available
    • Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB)
    • Laparscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG)
    • Biliopancreatic diversion with or witho

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